— Updated May 2017
As designers we have to be aware of the function of our work and design as much as we care about the aesthetics and visuals. There are a lot of terms for the design of how the site functions and works, from “usability design” to “user experience,” what remains constant is that if we want to become better designers we have to pair these two concepts together.
Using clear and effective design laws as guides we can use proven formulas for better design. These laws both assist in the experience and aesthetic quality of our designs. Furthermore being able to refer and cite these laws when presenting or discussing design can further establish your expertise and justify your design choices.
I’ve identified ten laws that can inform your design process.
1. Hick’s Law
Hick’s law states that with every additional choice the time it will take for one to make a selection increases. In short, the more options your website has the more difficult it will be to use. This law speaks the importance of simplicity.
The classic case study for Hick’s law involves a grocery store which put out free jam tasting for customers. In one case they had 40+ jams to sample and choose from compared to three samples in the control. The researchers discovered that customers purchased more jam when presented with a handful of options compared to the forty plus. Customers opted not to purchase jam rather than pick from such a large selection.
Hick’s law tells us that we should minimize choices where practical. This include removing non-critical pages, links, buttons and elements will make your designs more effective.
2. The Pareto Principal, or the 80 / 20 Rule
The pareto principal stipulates that 80% of outputs in a complex system are caused by 20% of total inputs. Explained simply, a large percentage of outcomes are caused by a small percentage of inputs (the actual numbers are not always 80/20.) What does this mean for web design? Lots of things.
For one a low percentage of users will perform a high percentage of your desired actions. For example 20% of all users will make up 80% of your contact form submissions or online purchases. 80% of users selecting from a drop down field will select the same 20% of options.
Once you know this disparity exists you can identify places to take advantage of it. The simplest implementation would be to prioritize the 20% of options, be them form fields, pages, links, etc… that get the most activity. Thinking broader, if you can learn about the 20% of high value users you can better optimize your design (and marketing efforts) to support their needs, increasing the amount of conversions you get from the site.
3. The Rule of Thirds
The rule of thirds is a method of composing elements to be visually pleasing in addition to identifying ways that users eyes will scan across the page. Photographers have been using this principal for years to create more visually interesting compositions.
The rule of thirds is used by breaking up a design into thirds both vertically and horizontally. This builds a grid of intersecting lines. The rule states that a viewer is more likely to be drawn to the intersection of those lines. Additionally it is a good rule of thumb to place elements along the lines and intersections as well as avoid placing anything in the dead center of the composition or have a horizon diving the composition in half.
Placing elements so that they take up 1/3rd or 2/rds of the space will be more visually pleasing to most viewers.
The law of proximity is often neglected, even by experienced designers. This law states that elements that are near each other will appear related and you should be intentional about both placement and spacing of elements in your design.
If you place two elements in close proximity users will assume the elements are related regardless if they actually are. Web applications often group controls near each other as a convention, yet sometimes those controls relate to completely different functionality. A search button equality spaced next to a “save” and “cancel” button will be assume relationship. For example, maybe the search is for looking up previous version of your work?
Using proximity is not all about avoiding unintentional grouping, it can be used to better inform users as well. Placing headlines closer to their related paragraphs instantly inform users that the text is related to the content below. You can look at the headlines in this blog as an example.
Industrial designers are masters of feedback, which is giving a user clear indication that something already happened, is currently happening or could happen in the future. Often subtle, feedback is the cornerstone of a positive experience. Consider a coffee maker that didn’t have an indicator that it was on, how would you know if you had successfully started the brewing process?
If interaction points don’t have obvious feedback the user needs to expend mental energy to figure out the current state of the website, which takes energy. Adding loading indicators, hover states, focus states, active state, visited link styling, validation / error messages, etc… makes the site more enjoyable.
6. Fitts’ Law
Fitts’ Law can be described as “The time required to move to a target is a function of the target size and distance to the target.” We can apply this to web design by looking at the hit area of our objects. Meaning the larger we can make the clickable area of key links and navigational elements the easier they will be to click on. Remember that while as web designers we may be extremely proficient at using the mouse and the web, there are a lot of users who still have trouble with these basic functions.
A common misuse of Fitts’ law is when a design is coded so that the text of a menu bar is clickable but the tabs themselves are not. Rather than just making the text clickable it would be a great idea to add padding to that link element to increase the clickable area. Sometimes this means turning the anchor into a block level element and wrapping details inside.
This can work in the opposite way as well, meaning items we want to be difficult to be clicked on (such as cancel buttons / links) should have a smaller clickable area. This is why you often see forms or actions that have large “save” buttons but text based “delete” or “cancel” links. WordPress uses this law extremely well.
7. The Golden Ratio
The golden ratio is often confused with the rule of thirds, but make no mistake they are different. The golden ratio looks at what proportions are naturally most visually appealing. This ratio has been used in design, architecture and engineering for hundreds of years. It even has been tied to what features we find most attractive in people (both facial features and body types).
The golden ratio can be described as a ratio with in the elements of a form, such as height to width, approximating 0.618.
When applied to rectangles you can continue to create smaller dissections of the shape using the .618 ratio, which creates a natural spiral pattern. This can be seen in nature by examining sea shells.
This ratio has been used through out history, in everything from the craftsmanship of violins to the design of the Parthenon and Stonehendge.
It is unlikely that some of these items were created with the golden ratio in mind, rather the creators likely preferred the visual appeal of the design when using these ratios.
Ultimately the golden ratio is more likely to produce visually pleasing compositions.
8. Occam’s Razor
Occam’s Razor put simply, states that “the simplest solution is almost always the best.” With the flexibility and power of the web and our design tools, it is easy to get carried away. The result is a very complicated site or design that may have a lot of functionality and information, but is difficult to use, build and maintain. Despite the fact that one might think the site can do more, it actually accomplishes less.
This is commonly an issue where companies feel the need to put everything they possibly could up on the website in the rare case that someone wants the information. What gets ignored is that the overwhelming majority of the users will access about 20% of the content on the site (see the 80/20 rule earlier).
Being ruthless about the value that a page or piece of content provides and removing anything that is unnecessary will make significantly stronger and more effective designs.
Additionally this rule speaks to the age old saying that “A design isn’t finished when there is nothing more to add, but when there is nothing left to take away.” Design simplicity is elegant, sophisticated and much more effective than the complex decorative style that is so prevalent on the web these days.
9. Fibonacci Sequence
The Fibonacci Sequence is a series of numbers in which each number is the sum of the preceding two. For example if you started with 1 it would go like this:
1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, etc…
This is significant as it has been found in many classical creative works, is found commonly in nature and is often used in addition to the golden ratio. Patterns based on the sequence are intrinsically aesthetic and therefor should be used in the composition of our designs.
This sequence can be used to create visual patterns, create shapes, organic figures, build grids or dictate sizing and ratios. The Fibonacci sequence is considered to be one of the most influential patterns in both mathematics as well as design.
10. Mental Models
The Mental Model law states that it is significantly easier for users to understand and learn something new if they can model it off of something they already understand. This is why the concept of tabs works so well and why operating systems are modeled off of real world office situations (folders, files, desktop, etc…)
We can use this concept in making our designs easier to use as well as more effective visually. There are times where it would be effective to model our designs off of real world situations or objects. Consider designs that mimic desktops, papers or offices. Users can learn, understand and draw meaning from these types of designs because they can relate it to their understanding of the objects in real life.
Use the Laws, Design Better
Are there any laws or design principals that you use when crafting your designs? I would love to hear about them.